大葉雀榕

英名:
Large Leaf Red Fruit Fig
學名:
Ficus caulocarpa (Miq.) Miq.
別名:
大葉赤榕、大葉榕
科別:
桑科 (Moraceae)
屬別:
榕屬 (Ficus)

落葉喬木或纏勒性植物,樹皮灰褐色。單葉互生,橢圓形至長橢圓形,長15~20公分,寬7~9.5公分,先端急尖,具短尖頭,基部鈍或圆形,邊缘全缘。雌花、雄花、瘿花或中性花,均生於同一隱頭花序(花托)内壁。花果期4~7月。隱花果2~8颗簇生於葉腋或落葉枝之葉腋,径約0.8公分,成熟時由白色轉紫黑色;種子(小瘦果)平滑細小。每年有1~2次的落葉期;落葉期短暫約2週。

多數桑科榕屬的植物會在枝幹上結隱花果,外觀上來看並不似一般常見的花,這其實是花軸膨大成花托,把小花都包藏在裡頭,稱為「隱頭花序」(hypanthodium)。花序頂端有一小孔,可讓「授粉榕小蜂」鑽進去幫它傳粉。熟成的果實稱為隱花果(如來自中亞常見的零食―無花果乾 (turkey fig) 亦同)。另在平野地區有一種同屬的雀榕(Ficus wightiana Benth)與它長得很像,可以雀榕葉子較窄(4~8公分)、成熟果實較大(1~1.5公分),以及果苞早落及成熟果色呈深粉紅這幾點來區分。

熱帶地區的榕屬植物,果實是鳥類或哺乳類的食物之一。成熟時,會有各類成群的鳥類及哺乳類在樹上大快朵頤。經其等取食後,種子隨糞便排出,在適當的樹坳或牆角環境下成長。若落在其他樹上,水份足夠也會萌發並生長。為了爭取生活空間,會利用氣生根將宿主「纏勒」起來。假以時日,宿主將逐漸萎縮、失去健康,最終死亡,榕屬植物便順勢取代原有植物的位置(如柬埔寨之吳哥窟古城上之巨樹),因此被稱為「纏勒植物或絞殺植物」。


Large leaf red fruit fig is a deciduous tree that is common in tropical regions. Its tree bark is grayish brown. Its leaves are alternate, elliptic , 15 - 20 cm in length, and 7 - 9.5 in width. Its flowers are hypanthodium, meaning that they grow inside a berry like structure, and they blossom during April to July. Its white fruits turn dark purple when fully matured. The fruit is highly attractive to avian life. Its seeds would then be carried elsewhere by the birds and would grow into saplings around other trees if the conditions meet. The saplings are considered to be“parasitic”and will wrap around its host tree, eventually replacing it.

Top